The Candida Expert

Posts tagged ‘IBS’

Common Questions About Candida

Here are three common questions that we get about Candida.

 

1) How Do I Know I Have Candida?

Dr. McCombs analysis of the research, dating back to 1949, shows that if you’ve ever done antibiotics, you’ll have systemic fungal candida. Most people however, won’t have any symptoms of fungal candida infections. Studies that have been done, show that candida albicans can persist undetected in the majority of individuals. For those of you have symptoms already, there’s really no short list of symptoms that would apply as fungal candida can affect every organ, tissue, and cell in the body, depending on several factors.

“Commensal organisms, such as Candida albicans, are able to persistently colonize the host without causing symptoms.”
Interactions of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans with the host
Steffen Rupp
Future microbiology. 01/05/2007; 2:141-51.
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/6176804

“The frequencies of the carriage of yeast pathogens and of serum precipitins to a variety of candida antigens among 254 patients generally tended to increase with the length of the patient’s stay in hospital. This trend was observed even though none of the patients investigated showed signs or symptoms of superficial or systemic candidosis.”
Distribution of pathogenic yeasts and humoral antibodies to candida among hospital inpatients.
J Clin Pathol 1980;33:750-756 doi:10.1136/jcp.33.8.750
http://jcp.bmj.com/content/33/8/750.abstract

“…based on the 15 to 25% rate of asymptomatic colonization in healthy adults or adolescents and especially the high asymptomatic vaginal fungal burden in adolescents.
An Intravaginal Live Candida Challenge in Humans Leads to New Hypotheses for the Immunopathogenesis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
Infection and Immunity, May 2004, p. 2939-2946, Vol. 72, No. 5
http://iai.asm.org/cgi/content/full/72/5/2939

 

2) What Causes Candida?

“Antibiotic treatment has also been shown to increase the rate of C. albicans isolation
in stool (15; M. Barza, M. Giuliano, and S. Gorbach, Program Abstr. 25th Intersci.”
“Factors identified that facilitate this dissemination include suppression of the intestinal bacterial flora…”
Factors Affecting Colonization and Dissemination of Candida albicans from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, JUlY 1987, p. 1558-1563
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC260558/pdf/iai00091-0028.pdf

“Candida albicans infections often occur during or shortly after antibacterial treatment.”
Influence of fluoroquinolones on phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils
Thomas Grúger; Caroline Mörler; Norbert Schnitzler; Kerstin Brandenburg; Sabine Nidermajer; Regine Horré; Josef Zúndorf
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a793116268?words=candida*%7Calbicans

“Risk factors for candidaemia include breakdown of mucosal barriers due to cytotoxic chemotherapy and surgical procedures, neutropenia, changes in the gut flora due to antibiotics, and invasive interventions that breach the skin, such as intravenous lines and drains (Wey et al, 1989).”
The immune response to fungal infections
Shmuel Shoham1 and Stuart M. Levitz
1Section of Infectious Diseases, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, and 2Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
British Journal of Haematology, 129, 569–582
http://www.aspergillus.org.uk/secure/articles/pdfs/shoham05.pdf

“The composition of the microbiota is significantly affected by the use of antibiotics, which are often used extensively,…”
Host immune response to antibiotic perturbation of the microbiota
M Wlodarska and B B Finlay
http://www.nature.com/mi/journal/v3/n2/full/mi2009135a.html

“Mice were pretreated with antibacterial agents to alter their resident microflora, and then orally inoculated with C. glabrata and/or C. albicans. Elimination of detectable cecal bacteria facilitated colonization with both Candida species.”
Comparative abilities of Candida glabrata and Candida albicans to colonize and translocate from the intestinal tract of antibiotic-treated mice
Michelle J. Henry-Stanley; Robb M. Garni; Mary Alice Johnson; Catherine M. Bendel; Carol L. Wells
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a727729968?words=candida*|albicans*

“…antibiotic therapy has been reported to precede disseminated candidiasis in children.”
Interaction of Candida albicans with Human Leukocytes and Serum
ROBERT I. LEHRER AND MARTIN J. CLINE
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC315286/pdf/jbacter00585-0178.pdf

“Oral antibiotic therapy in humans often leads to colonization and over-growth of the GI tract by C. albicans”
Inhibition of Candida albicans Translocation from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice by Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii
R. Berg, P. Bernasconi, D. Fowler, and M. Gautreaux
Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Lousiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport and BIOCODEX, Montrouge, France
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 168, No. 5 (Nov., 1993), pp. 1314-1318
http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/30113658?tokenId=KxZI8GrRjXWed9JhIfFv

“Antibiotic treatment decreased the total population levels of the indigenous bacterial flora, and predisposed mice to gastrointestinal overgrowth and subsequent dissemination by Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. tropicalis, and Torulopsis glabrata.”
Dissemination of yeasts after gastrointestinal inoculation in antibiotic-treated mice
1983, Vol. 21, No. 1 , Pages 27-33
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00362178385380051

“Antibiotic treatment decreased the total population levels of the indigenous bacterial flora and predisposed hamsters to gastrointestinal overgrowth and subsequent systemic dissemination by C. albicans in 86% of the animals.”
Ecology of Candida albicans Gut Colonization: Inhibition of Candida Adhesion, Colonization, and Dissemination from the Gastrointestinal Tract by Bacterial Antagonism
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, Sept. 1985, p. 654-663
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC261235/pdf/iai00114-0202.pdf

 

3) How Long Does It Take For Candida To Spread In The Body?

“Oral-intragastric inoculation of 5-6-day-old mice with yeast of a virulent strain of Candida albicans (CA30) resulted in systemic spread within 30 min after challenge. Histological examinations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have shown that the highest frequency of invasion of the mucosa by yeast cells occurred in the region of the jejunum 1-3 h after inoculation. Results of ultrastructural examinations of sites where the fungus invaded the bowel wall suggested that C. albicans yeast cells are capable of progressive extracellular digestion of the intestinal mucus barrier and microvillus layer, followed by intracellular invasion of columnar epithelial cells.”
Morphological aspects of gastrointestinal tract invasion by Candida albicans in the infant mouse.
J Med Vet Mycol. 1988 Jun;26(3):173-85.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3050009

“The pseudomycelium was found to invade animal epithelia at an average rate of 2 microns per hour, penetrating the entire epithelial thickness during 24-48 h. These data have been extrapolated to clinical pathology. On the basis of experimental data and by measuring the epithelial thickness in some human mucous membranes, the presumable periods of total epithelial penetration were calculated which may lead to vascular invasion and create the danger of dissemination. For different human mucous membranes these periods ranged from 22 to 59 h.”
Velocity of Candida albicans invasion into host tissues.
Mycoses ; 34:293-6.
http://www.ophsource.org/periodicals/ophtha/medline/record/MDLN.1803229

“Critical times in the development of infections in optimally challenged BALB/c mice were at 5-10 h (bloodstream fully cleared of fungi), 24 h (start of exponential fungal growth in kidneys) and 48 h (50% of blood cultures become positive.”
Temporal events in the intravenous challenge model for experimental Candida albicans infections in female mice.
Mycoses. 2005 May;48(3):151-61.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15842329

 

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Candida Linked To Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, and Other Autoimmune Conditions

In this recent study, Candida albicans was shown to cause inflammatory and autoimmune reactions that lead to arthritis, psoriasis and other skin rashes, multiple sclerosis, and many other conditions and diseases – http://candidaplan.com/blog/620/candida-linked-to-arthritis-multiple-sclerosis-psoriasis-and-other-autoimmune-conditions/

VISIT OUR NEW BLOG AT – www.candidaplan.com/blog

Antibiotics and Candida

I often get asked about antibiotics and systemic candida. Antibiotics are definitely the best way to create systemic fungal infections and lifelong intestinal flora imbalances in the body, as well as an unlimited number of other problems. Although the medical profession doesn’t even acknowledge this, scientists and researchers state this obvious fact over and over again.

 

Antibiotics kill good and bad bacteria. Killing these bacteria causes a massive hemorrhaging of the internal components of all bacteria. This is particularly problematic because our bodies respond to these internal components by producing acute and eventually chronic long-term inflammation that can affect all tissues and cells throughout the body. This massive inflammatory cascade can breakdown tissues and interfere with cellular function. One of these internal substances, Lipopolysaccaharide (LPS) is common in gram-negative bacteria and is a substance that most researchers use in laboratory testing due to the overwhelming reliable strong immune response that it causes.

 

Some of these intracellular bacterial components, like Peptidoglycans (PGN) also act directly on the cellular membrane of the yeast Candida Albicans causing it to transform into its pathogenic fungal form. This is in addition to antibiotics eliminating millions of beneficial bacteria that help to keep the Candida Albicans yeast within ratios that benefit the overall health of the intestinal tract and therefore the rest of the body.

 

Antibiotics can also suppress the immune system response. This primarily affects the macrophages which go around cleaning up pathogenic organisms that would otherwise harm us. By suppressing macrophages, antibiotics can reduce the pro-inflammatory cascade which macrophages play a big role in initiating. While this may seem beneficial, it actually aids in the spread of the pathogenic fungal form of C. Albicans. First, with antibiotic-induced suppression of the immune system, the fungal candida now can spread more rapidly without macrophages to inhibit it. Secondly, by suppressing the macrophages and the inflammatory response, the liver does not release positive acute-phase proteins which are necessary for preventing the spread of pathogenic organisms throughout the body. Three of these acute-phase proteins (Ferritin, Ceruloplasmin, & Haptoglobin) function by binding iron and making it unavailable to pathogenic fungal candida. Without these 3 proteins, fungal candida can now attach itself to our blood cells and feed on an unlimited source of iron in the form of hemoglobin to help it spread throughout the body. This also goes for other pathogenic microbes that will be spreading as a result of the effect of antibiotics in the body. 

 

By killing off the beneficial bacteria that inhabit and help to regulate the normal healthy intestinal flora, we lose the beneficial enzymes and acids that these organisms produce. This causes the pH of the intestinal tract to become more alkaline. An alkaline intestinal pH also promotes the conversion of C. Albicans into its pathogenic fungal form. When the intestinal pH is acidic, candida remains in its normal yeast form. 

 

The above examples are just some of the ways that antibiotics promote and maintain the ongoing growth and spread of fungal candida throughout the body.

 

Killing off the beneficial bacteria also leads to decreased absorption of nutrients that our cells and tissues need to function in a healthy state. Certain strains of acidophilus help to synthesize B vitamins. A deficiency of these alone would create innumerable problems within the body.

 

There are an estimated 100 trillion micro-organisms within the intestinal tract. For many years, researchers were able to identify some 300-500 species of micro-organisms that were responsible for making up the 100 trillion cells. Recent advances in the use of technology have now identified close to 6,000 species in the large intestine alone. Most of what these organisms do and how they interact is unknown. As long as there is a sufficient amount of beneficial bacteria to keep everything in balance, then we have a better chance at staying healthy. Research now tells us that some these species are permanently eliminated from the body by the use of antibiotics – http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/11/081118121941.htm.

 

Apart from the use of antibiotics being responsible for thousands of deaths and over 144,000 visits to emergency rooms each year in the U.S. alone, the incidence of antibiotic resistance continues to escalate worldwide to the point that we are rapidly approaching a new era where antibiotics won’t be useful for most people – http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090128183925.htm.

As this continues to happen, we will see an increase in the use of natural methods that help restore balance without creating additional problems. This is the goal of the McCombs Plan for Health, Vitality, and Transformation – http://mccombsplan.com/.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Probiotics

IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by recurring symptoms of abdominal discomfort or pain associated with an altered bowel habit, either constipation, diarrhea, or both. In IBS, the GI tract may function differently, processing more slowly (or more quickly) than the average person.

Dr. Gerald Friedman of The Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York and co-investigator Greg Biancone conducted a multi-center analysis to determine if a multi-strain probiotic was effective in reducing the frequency of diarrhea in 84 IBS patients (IBS-D). In this small study, a multi-strain probiotic administered daily for 28 days normalized bowel habits in IBS patients compared to those who received the placebo. The average number of daily diarrheal episodes in the probiotic group significantly decreased from day 1 to day 28 compared to slight decreases in the placebo group during the same period.

In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study conducted at seven pediatric GI centers in the United States, Italy, and India, Dr. Stefano Guandalini of the University of Chicago and his research team randomly assigned 59 pediatric IBS patients to receive either a probiotic agent or a placebo for six weeks. At the end of six weeks, patients switched to the other arm of the study and underwent six more weeks of treatment. Patients filled out a questionnaire to assess their symptoms and overall quality of life before and after treatment. Researchers found the probiotic agent was safe and significantly more effective than the placebo in alleviating IBS-related symptoms (abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, stool dysfunction) in children and teenagers.

Both of these studies demonstrate the dramatic effectiveness of probiotics in addressing what is usually a long-term, chronic problem of the digestive tract created as a consequence of antibiotic use. Antibiotics destroy the normal populations of bacteria and yeast, and allow for other micro-organisms to grow unchecked within the digestive tract and throughout the body.

Probiotics are dietary supplements composed of beneficial strains of bacterial and yeast cultures that promote health in the body. The use of probiotics by themselves will create temporary changes. Long-term reversal of IBS and many other conditions originating in the digestive tract can be accomplished through whole body detoxification, restoring the normal healthy ratios of beneficial bacteria and yeast, and eliminating systemic candida fungal infections that arise from antibiotic use. For more information on restoring health, go to www.mccombsplan.com.

 

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